Timber Answers

Timber Answers provides technical information about wood properties, and uses of over 1 000 species of Australian and imported timbers, including those commonly grown in plantations.

The interactive selection tool allows species to be filtered and sorted according to a number of common properties.

Timber Answers provides technical data to help builders, designers and engineers choose which timber to use. It enables growers and processors optimise use of the timber resource.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: Feb 3, 2020 Views: 32258
Seedlings of invasive plants


This key helps to identify seedlings of invasive plants, so plants can be recognized in an early stage of development. The species included are those of invasive terrestrial plants and/or plants which are introduced as weeds in imported potplants.

A total of 92 species is included. All features are illustrated with botanical drawings so that no knowledge of botanical terms is needed, basic knowledge of plant morphology, however, is helpful. The keys link to complete species descriptions on the Q-bank – Plants website. All species are well illustrated by photographs showing distinguishing characteristics or invaded sites. Several species are also treated in the Key to the invasive terrestrial plants and/or the Key to the Weeds in bonsai plants. This key is also available in French and Dutch.


EPPO-Q-bank covers the following organism groups that contain quarantine organisms:

  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
  • Invasive Plants
  • Nematodes
  • Arthropods
  • Phytoplasma’s
  • Viruses and viroids

The databases are managed by EPPO – the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization and curated by internationally known specialists and contain specimen-based information including molecular data. The website offers the possibility to blast, in single- or multi-locus mode, sequences for identification.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: May 22, 2019 Views: 30750
Key Author(s): C. Tomas & H. Duistermaat, Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands Key Publisher: Key Version: September 2017
Key to Insect Orders

Predictions about the biology, behaviour and ecology of an insect can often be made once you know to which of the 32 Orders that insect belongs. But how can you find this out?

Insects can be identified in various ways. Comparing a specimen with a book of illustrations of identified insects is one way; using a printed key to Insect Orders is an alternative. This Lucid Mobile Key to Insect Orders combines the advantages of both methods by adding a new dimension of simplicity and power to the process of identification. Designed for a range of users, including secondary school students, beginning undergraduates and anyone with an interest in entomology, this key uses the popular Lucid matrix system together with images of typical species within each Order to help identify to which Order most common adult insects belong. The fact sheets for each Order provide information about identifying features, the structure and biology of insect species within that Order, as well as other relevant information.

The 'Key to Insect Orders' was originally created by staff at the Department of Entomology at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia but has recently been revised (2019) by Professor Steve Marshall at the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: Jan 14, 2020 Views: 30345
Key Author(s): UQ Entomology Staff Key Publisher: The University of Queensland Key Version: 1.0
Thrips of California 2019

This revised version of Hoddle et al. (2012) has been produced partly to overcome technical problems arising from Java software and partly to incorporate new information and images, together with some additional potentially invasive species.

Information pages are provided to 300 species in 108 genera, with the identification system discriminating 249 species. Of these species, 40 are as yet unrecorded in California but are potential invaders, whether interstate or from overseas.

They have been included for the convenience of quarantine services in USA. In contrast, the Thysanoptera fauna of the American continent north of Mexico has been estimated to comprise 700 described thrips species (Arnett, 1985), with 147 species recorded from Canada (Foottit & Maw, 2019). This identification system is based essentially on adult females, these being the most commonly collected individuals.

For larval thrips, the only modern identification system is to part of the Thripidae fauna of Europe (Vierbergen et al., 2010).

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: Jul 3, 2019 Views: 28955
Key Author(s): Mark S. Hoddle, Laurence A. Mound, Dena Paris Key Publisher: Lucidcentral Key Version: 2019 ed.
Interactive identification tool to identify the plant-parasitic mites (Acari) of most interest to quarantine

This key allows separation of the plant-parasitic mite families of most interest to quarantine.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: May 13, 2011 Views: 26376
Key Author(s): Dr David Evans Walter Key Version: 1.0
Thysanoptera Aotearoa (Thrips of New Zealand)

There have been few studies on the thrips of New Zealand. Most of the information presented in this system is derived from two Fauna of New Zealand volumes (Mound & Walker 1982; 1986). However, much of the data in those two volumes was derived from limited amounts of field work, both in space and time. Particularly missing are biological studies on thrips species that are native to New Zealand, with many of these remaining known from very few specimens.

Only for some Thripidae have there been studies on biology and host-plant range. Teulon & Penman (1990) produced outstanding data on the diversity of plants on which Thrips obscuratus breeds. Martin & Mound (2004) explored the host associations of several species, and Martin (2017) provided good data on the host plants of Panchaetothripinae in New Zealand.

For the many species of fungus-feeding Phlaeothripidae there have been no studies on biology or behaviour, although the sexual dimorphism and male polyphenism many such species exhibit suggests the existence of competitive behaviours.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: Oct 19, 2017 Views: 26056
Key Author(s): Mound LA, Nielsen M & Hastings A Key Publisher:, Identic Pty Ltd, Queensland, Australia. Key Version: 2017
Thrips of Brazil

The Thysanoptera fauna of Brazil is one of the most diverse in the world. More than 530 species were described based on material collected in Brazilian territory and approximately 700 species are recorded from this country. This number represents more than 10% of the species described in the Thysanoptera. Besides the large number of species, the Brazilian fauna is also diverse in terms of ecology and life histories.

In this identification system, the user can identify the 6 Thysanoptera families that occur in Brazil.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: Feb 15, 2018 Views: 25910
Key Author(s): Adriano Cavalleri, Laurence A. Mound, Mariana F. Lindner, Marcos Botton, Milton de Souza Mendonça Jr. Key Version: Feb 2018
key to the world species groups of Leucospis (Hymenoptera: Leucospidae)

This key provides an interactive identification tool designed to identify any Leucospis specimen to the species group level. The Lucid key recognizes 20 taxa of Leucospis, 16 species groups and 4 species sola (Darling and Cardinal 2005). Keys to the species are available in Boucek (1974).

About Page
Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: Mar 23, 2018 Views: 25484
Key Author(s): D. Christopher DARLING and Sophie CARDINAL Key Version: 1.5
Key to willow species and hybrids present in New Zealand

This key is illustrated with more than 2000 images of willow species and hybrids that are either wild or in cultivation in New Zealand, and the features that are used to identify them. Most illustrations are of willow clones grown in the national willow collection in Palmerston North maintained by Plant and Food NZ.

The key is designed for those with some experience in plant identification, and some features will need at least a strong hand lens (10x or better) to see features such as stamen filament hairs. It will be of use to bee-keepers, farmers with an interest in growing willows as bee food, and conservation estate managers who need to identify willows in the wild.

Writing of this key was funded by the Sustainable Farming Fund, Trees for Bees NZ, the Willow and Poplar Trust, Plant and Food NZ, and Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: May 27, 2019 Views: 24571
Key Author(s): Glenny D, Jones T Key Publisher: Landcare Research Key Version: 2019
A Key to the Genera of Endeostigmata and Sphaerolichida

This is a key to the genera of primitive acariform mite groups Endeostigmata and Sphaerolichida written and compiled by Dr David Evans Walter of Colorado State University and the University of Alberta with the assistance of Dr Heather Proctor of the University of Alberta.

Endeostigmatans are common in many habitats, but seem to reach their highest abundances in extreme habitats such as deserts, beaches, and polar regions. As far as is known, these mites are fungivores, algivores and predators on small invertebrates such as nematodes, tardigrades, and mites.  None are considered economically important pests.  They are most likely to be intercepted in goods containing soil, especially dry soils including sand, lichens, mosses or other materials associated with dry or otherwise extreme habitats, including anthropogenic accumulations of dust.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: May 13, 2011 Views: 23235
Key Author(s): Dr David Evans Walter & Dr Heather Proctor Key Version: 1.0
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