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Key to willow species and hybrids present in New Zealand

This key is illustrated with more than 2000 images of willow species and hybrids that are either wild or in cultivation in New Zealand, and the features that are used to identify them. Most illustrations are of willow clones grown in the national willow collection in Palmerston North maintained by Plant and Food NZ.

The key is designed for those with some experience in plant identification, and some features will need at least a strong hand lens (10x or better) to see features such as stamen filament hairs. It will be of use to bee-keepers, farmers with an interest in growing willows as bee food, and conservation estate managers who need to identify willows in the wild.

Writing of this key was funded by the Sustainable Farming Fund, Trees for Bees NZ, the Willow and Poplar Trust, Plant and Food NZ, and Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: May 27, 2019 Views: 93
Key Author(s): Glenny D, Jones T Key Publisher: Landcare Research Key Version: 2019
Invasive aquatic plants in Europe

Introduction

This key is an identification tool for invasive aquatic plants and the close allies ('look-alikes'). Part of the species is traded as ornamental plants for ponds and aquaria. As such they may escape cultivation and start colonizing natural environments and become a pest.

A total of 78 species is included. All features are illustrated with botanical drawings so that no knowledge of botanical terms is needed, basic knowledge of plant morphology, however, is helpful. Distinguishing characters have been added for certain groups of closely related species. The keys link to complete species descriptions on the Q-bank – Plants website. All species are well illustrated by photographs showing distinguishing characteristics or invaded sites. The key is regularly updated with new species and new photographs. This key is also available in French and Dutch.

 

EPPO-Q-bank

EPPO-Q-bank – Comprehensive databases on plant pests and diseases covers the following organism groups that contain quarantine organisms:

  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
  • Invasive Plants
  • Nematodes
  • Arthropods
  • Phytoplasma’s
  • Viruses and viroids

The databases are managed by EPPO – the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization and curated by internationally known specialists and contain specimen-based information including molecular data. The website offers the possibility to blast, in single- or multi-locus mode, sequences for identification.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: May 22, 2019 Views: 107
Key Author(s): R. Pot, J.L.C.H. van Valkenburg, H. Duistermaat, E. Boer Key Version: June 2017
Pennisetum key

Introduction

This key is specifically developed for the identification of species belonging to the genus Pennisetum available on the European market. The reason for developing this key is the large number of Pennisetum species and varieties available and the difficulty of distinguishing them from each other. Since August 2017 one Pennisetum species, Pennisetum setaceum, is on the List of Invasive Alien Species of Union concern (the Union list), which forms the core of Regulation (EU) 1143/2014. Pennisetum setaceum being on the Union list entails that sales, distribution and cultivation of this species is prohibited. Furthermore, this entails that the species shall not be brought into the territory of the European Union, and the species shall not be released into the environment (Regulation (EU) 1143/2014).

The key includes descriptions and photos of 10 Pennisetum species and 27 Pennisetum varieties. Seventeen features can be scored in random order to find the right species. The features are illustrated with line drawings to facilitate identification.

For each species two separate entries are included, one based on measurements of herbarium specimens and one based on GrassBase, the Online World Grass Flora. Two separate entries are included because sometimes there are discrepancies between the two sources, especially concerning quantitative traits. Entries based on our own herbarium specimens better match plants in cultivation, while descriptions from GrassBase better correspond with plants in the wild.

To all entries of plant species and varieties two descriptions are attached. One is the Natural Language Description, which is an automatically generated description based on the feature scores that underlie the key. The second, entitled Extensive Description, is a manually created description, which gives more precise plant features and includes some additional information.

All entries are illustrated with photos, which is recommended to use as a final control step of the identification process. For most species also microscopic photos are included, detailing floral characteristics.

EPPO-Q-bank

EPPO-Q-bank – Comprehensive databases on plant pests and diseases covers the following organism groups that contain quarantine organisms:

  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
  • Invasive Plants
  • Nematodes
  • Arthropods
  • Phytoplasma’s
  • Viruses and viroids

The databases are managed by EPPO – the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization and curated by internationally known specialists and contain specimen-based information including molecular data. The website offers the possibility to blast, in single- or multi-locus mode, sequences for identification.

Reference

European Union. (2014). Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species. Official Journal of the European Union, 57, 35.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: May 22, 2019 Views: 95
Key Author(s): M.E. Costerus Key Version: May 2018
Seedlings of invasive plants

Introduction

This key helps to identify seedlings of invasive plants, so plants can be recognized in an early stage of development. The species included are those of invasive terrestrial plants and/or plants which are introduced as weeds in imported potplants.

A total of 92 species is included. All features are illustrated with botanical drawings so that no knowledge of botanical terms is needed, basic knowledge of plant morphology, however, is helpful. The keys link to complete species descriptions on the Q-bank – Plants website. All species are well illustrated by photographs showing distinguishing characteristics or invaded sites. Several species are also treated in the Key to the invasive terrestrial plants and/or the Key to the Weeds in bonsai plants. This key is also available in French and Dutch.

EPPO-Q-bank

EPPO-Q-bank covers the following organism groups that contain quarantine organisms:

  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
  • Invasive Plants
  • Nematodes
  • Arthropods
  • Phytoplasma’s
  • Viruses and viroids

The databases are managed by EPPO – the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization and curated by internationally known specialists and contain specimen-based information including molecular data. The website offers the possibility to blast, in single- or multi-locus mode, sequences for identification.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: May 22, 2019 Views: 20151
Key Author(s): C. Tomas & H. Duistermaat, Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands Key Publisher: Lucidcentral.org Key Version: September 2017
Seeds of invasive plants

Introduction

This key is an identification tool for seeds of invasive plants. The choice of species was based on an extensive survey of seeds and seed mixtures in trade, where the seeds of these invasive species were found as contamination.

A total of 143 species is included. All features are illustrated with botanical drawings so that no knowledge of botanical terms is needed, basic knowledge of plant morphology, however, is helpful. The keys link to complete species descriptions on the Q-bank – Plants website. All species are well illustrated by photographs showing distinguishing characteristics or invaded sites. This key is also available in French and Dutch.

EPPO-Q-bank

EPPO-Q-bank covers the following organism groups that contain quarantine organisms:

  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
  • Invasive Plants
  • Nematodes
  • Arthropods
  • Phytoplasma’s
  • Viruses and viroids

The databases are managed by EPPO – the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization and curated by internationally known specialists and contain specimen-based information including molecular data. The website offers the possibility to blast, in single- or multi-locus mode, sequences for identification.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: May 22, 2019 Views: 20746
Key Author(s): Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity Naturalis (section NHN), Leiden & the Plant Protection Service, Wageningen Key Publisher: Lucidcentral.org Key Version: September 2017
Key to the invasive terrestrial plants in Europe

Introduction

This key helps to identify the major invasive terrestrial plants in NW Europe. Invasive are those species that pose a threat to the biodiversity of the ecoregion. Species included are both those that already are known to be invasive in this region, as well as species known to be invasive elsewhere in comparable climatic regions. Moreover, look-alikes are included to distinguish closely related taxa. A total of 140 species is included. All features are illustrated with botanical drawings so that no knowledge of botanical terms is needed, basic knowledge of plant morphology, however, is helpful. The keys link to complete species descriptions on the Q-bank – Plants website. All species are well illustrated by photographs showing distinguishing characteristics or invaded sites. The key is regularly updated with new species and new photographs. Species that are imported in Europe as weeds in potplants are treated in a separate key. This key is also available in French and Dutch.

EPPO-Q-bank

EPPO-Q-bank covers the following organism groups that contain quarantine organisms:

  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
  • Invasive Plants
  • Nematodes
  • Arthropods
  • Phytoplasma’s
  • Viruses and viroids

The databases are managed by EPPO – the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization and curated by internationally known specialists and contain specimen-based information including molecular data. The website offers the possibility to blast, in single- or multi-locus mode, sequences for identification.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: May 22, 2019 Views: 39437
Key Author(s): H. Duistermaat, E. Boer, J. van Valkenburg, Hortus Botanicus Leiden.< Key Publisher: Lucidcentral.org Key Version: June 2017
Key to the weeds in imported bonsai plants in Europe

Introduction

This key is an identification tool for weeds that are introduced in Europe as they are imported as weeds in bonsai or other potplants. As many potplants are produced in Asia and South America, many common weeds in those regions are included. The species treated in this key do not necessarily have invasive treats and some will not survive a European winter.

A total of 136 species is included. All features are illustrated with botanical drawings so that no knowledge of botanical terms is needed, basic knowledge of plant morphology, however, is helpful. Distinguishing characters have been added for certain groups of closely related species. The keys link to complete species descriptions on the Q-bank – Plants website. All species are well illustrated by photographs showing distinguishing characteristics or invaded sites. The key is regularly updated with new species and new photographs. This key is also available in French and Dutch.

EPPO-Q-bank

EPPO-Q-bank covers the following organism groups that contain quarantine organisms:

  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
  • Invasive Plants
  • Nematodes
  • Arthropods
  • Phytoplasma’s
  • Viruses and viroids

The databases are managed by EPPO – the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization and curated by internationally known specialists and contain specimen-based information including molecular data. The website offers the possibility to blast, in single- or multi-locus mode, sequences for identification.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: May 22, 2019 Views: 46233
Key Author(s): Hortus Botanicus Leiden, Netherlands, Naturalis Centre for Biodiversity, Leiden & National Plant Protection Organization the Netherlands, Wageningen Key Publisher: Lucidcentral.org Key Version: November 2017
Plants of South Eastern New South Wales

Introduction

This key is designed for anyone who has an interest in finding out about the plants of south eastern New South Wales. It includes about 2,900 species of plants accompanied by about 10,000 images. It includes Eucalypts, but not ferns, orchids, grasses, or most sedges or rushes. There are about 3,900 relevant species in the area covered by this key.

The key mostly uses easily seen characters and a minimum of technical terms to help with the identification of plants. It is not designed to key out to a single species, though sometimes it does. It is designed to narrow down the possibilities of what the plant might be to a limited number of species. The photos may then help you decide what your plant is.

In most cases, the use of a hand lens or a low power microscope is not necessary for identification, except when counting the number of flowers/florets in a flower head, and deciding whether hairs on stems are stellate (multiple hairs arising from a point, looking like a star), branched, or simple. Identification needing the use of a high power microscope is beyond the scope of the key.

Online key URL: https://apps.lucidcentral.org/plants_se_nsw/

Also available on:

  Android

iOS iOS

Related key: Plants and Fungi of south western New South Wales

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: May 17, 2019 Views: 267
Key Author(s): Betty Wood Key Version: 1.0
Spider mite species of Australia (including key exotic southeast Asian pest species)

About the key

This interactive key provides diagnostics for all the species of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) previously recorded in Australia, based mostly on literature records. Several species collected in Australia, but not yet recorded in the literature, are also included (manuscript in prep). In addition, a few select exotic species from south east Asia of concern to Australia’s biosecurity have also been included, and are indicated by ^^ after the species name. Where possible, the diagnostics (images and data) presented in this key were taken from direct examination of the type specimens. A detailed fact sheet has been provided for nearly all species treated. Australian voucher specimens have not been examined for all species treated in this key, and some records are in need of further investigation.

Note well: voucher specimens were not examined for all species treated in this key, and that several groups of species cannot be separated, but this may change with updates. For example, all the Bryobia species listed cannot be separated from each other, and the members of the Oligonychus ununguis species group are notoriously difficult to separate. When this occurs, unfortunately, the key will continue to present you with character state options, even though no further resolution is possible. In these cases, you must rely on examining the fact sheets for each of the remaining taxa. In addition, there are a few species with various taxonomic issues, for example Tetranychus lambi, where there are possibly two species represented in the type series, and as such, separating that taxon cleanly is not possible as certain character features have multiple character states present.

Note also: that the key opens with female characters only. As characters are selected, the relevant male characters will open for the user to see.

Please contact the author (jenny.beard@qm.qld.gov.au) if you have any issues with the key not working, or suggestions for improvement etc.

Funding

Development of this key has been funded under the Australian Government’s Agricultural Competitiveness and Developing Northern Australia white papers, the government’s plans for stronger farmers, a stronger economy and a safe, secure Australia.

Acknowledgements

Immense thanks go to Ronald Ochoa & Debbie Creel of USNM (Beltsville, USA) for the loan of many critical specimens (including types) and for hosting me in the USNM for several months. Further thanks go to Jeremy Carlo Naredo of MNH (Laguna, The Philippines), Alain Migeon of CBGP (Montferrier-sur-Lez, France), and Jan Beccaloni of NHM (London, UK) for the loan of critical specimens, including many types. I also wish to thank Owen Seeman of QM (Brisbane, Australia), Jurgen Otto of Department of Agriculture and Water Resources (Sydney, Australia), Frederic Beaulieu of CNC (Ottawa, Canada), Andrew Manners (Queensland Government Department of Agriculture and Fisheries), and Jamie Davies DPIPWE (New Town, Tasmania, Australia) for useful comments of draft versions of the key and fact sheets.

Author

Jennifer J Beard, Queensland Museum (http://www.qm.qld.gov.au/)

Version

v1.0 December 2018

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: Dec 22, 2018 Views: 759
Key Author(s): Jennifer J Beard, Queensland Museum Key Publisher: Lucidcentral.org Key Version: v1.0 December 2018
Thrips of the British Isles

Thysanoptera Britannica et Hibernica

Thrips of the British Isles

This identification and information system includes 177 species of thrips that have been taken alive on the British Isles at least once. It provides a means of identifying species, together with an introduction to what is known of the biology and distribution of each species. The identification system is based largely on adult females as this is the life stage most commonly collected. Printed identification keys that similarly deal with adults of the British thrips fauna include Mound et al, (1976) and zur Strassen (2003), and for larvae an extensive introduction is provided by Vierbergen et al. (2010).

This publication should be cited as follows: Mound LA, Collins DW, Hastings A (2018). Thysanoptera Britannica et Hibernica - Thrips of the British Isles. Lucidcentral.org, Identic Pty Ltd, Queensland, Australia.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: Nov 16, 2018 Views: 1020
Key Author(s): Laurence Mound, Dom Collins, Anne Hastings Key Publisher: Identic Pty Ltd Key Version: 1.0
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