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Tardigrades of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park

This is a key and field guide to the Phylum Tardigrada in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park.  It has been developed as part of the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (ATBI) (www.dlia.org). The key is designed to cover ONLY species in the park, though it includes approximately 70% of the known eastern U.S. limno-terrestrial species (H. Meyer pers. com.).

Using it for specimens from other sites could give erroneous results.  Characters for taxa above the species level are based on a key to limno-terrestrial tardigrades (including Heterotardigrada and Eutardigrada) by Nelson & McInnes (2002) and a key to Eutardigrada by Pilato & Binda (2010).

For a current checklist of all known tardigrade species, and the authorities for each, go to the University of Modena Tardigrade Webpage.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: Nov 4, 2019 Views: 1404
Key Author(s): P.J. Bartels & D.R. Nelson Key Version: 2011
Crop rotations and their resistance to plant-parasitic nematodes

Plant-parasitic nematodes are a major constraint to banana production. An important strategy for management is the use of non-host rotation crops that limit nematode feeding and reproduction.

This selection tool provides recommendations for Queensland horticultural industries on the most suitable rotation crop to manage a specific plant-parasitic nematode. Users enter as much or as little agronomic information as desired and the software will generate a list of responses conforming to that information.

The user is then able to browse the key and instantly open crop fact sheets with further details.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: Oct 28, 2019 Views: 1543
Key Author(s): Katherine Thomson, Jennifer Cobon, Wayne O'Neill and Tony Pattison Key Publisher: Department of Agriculture and Fisheries Queensland Key Version: 1.0
Thrips of California 2019

This revised version of Hoddle et al. (2012) has been produced partly to overcome technical problems arising from Java software and partly to incorporate new information and images, together with some additional potentially invasive species.

Information pages are provided to 300 species in 108 genera, with the identification system discriminating 249 species. Of these species, 40 are as yet unrecorded in California but are potential invaders, whether interstate or from overseas.

They have been included for the convenience of quarantine services in USA. In contrast, the Thysanoptera fauna of the American continent north of Mexico has been estimated to comprise 700 described thrips species (Arnett, 1985), with 147 species recorded from Canada (Foottit & Maw, 2019). This identification system is based essentially on adult females, these being the most commonly collected individuals.

For larval thrips, the only modern identification system is to part of the Thripidae fauna of Europe (Vierbergen et al., 2010).

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: Jul 3, 2019 Views: 6593
Key Author(s): Mark S. Hoddle, Laurence A. Mound, Dena Paris Key Publisher: Lucidcentral Key Version: 2019 ed.
Key to the world species of Ips (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

About the key

A matrix key designed to allow maximum diagnostic inference from male or female specimens of Ips DeGeer, 1775, including damaged specimens.

Morphologically similar genera of Ipini, Orthotomicus and Pseudips, are included at genus level to help distinguish Ips from these other genera.

Numbers in parentheses in natural language descriptions indicate outlier values observed in only a few specimens.

Key accompanies an article in the Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification (Douglas et al. in press). This article includes a dichotomous key, and illustrated diagnostic fact sheets for all Ips species and subspecies.

Douglas HB, Cognato AI, Grebennikov, V, Savard K. In Press. Dichotomous and matrix-based keys to the Ips bark beetles of the World (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification 38: 234pp. doi:10.3752/cjai.2019.38.

URL: https://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/ips_de_geer/

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: Jun 28, 2019 Views: 2058
Key Author(s): Douglas HB, Cognato AI, Grebennikov, V, Savard K. Key Publisher: Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification Key Version: 2019
A Key to the genera of Australian Jumping Spiders (Araneae: Salticidae)

Identification key: https://apps.lucidcentral.org/salticidae/

The key is intended to meet the needs of naturalists, biologists and taxonomists who wish to identify Australian jumping spiders. The character set has high redundancy (99 characters, 293 character states) allowing users to begin with whatever observable characters are available to them when using photographs, a high-powered hand lens or a microscope.

An information sheet attached to each genus provides a list of known species and information on evolutionary relationships, distribution, habits, a simplified diagnosis, and some key references. A series of diagrams and photographs (of living specimens and of aspects of the morphology, including palps and epigynes) is provided for each genus.

Further information and instructions for using the key can be found in the document attached to ‘Salticidae’ in the top right hand quadrant of the key.

Please send comments, or suggestions for improving the key, and requests for assistance, to barry.richardson@csiro.au.

The key can be cited as Richardson, B.J., Whyte, R. and Żabka, M. (2019). A key to the genera of Australian jumping spiders (Aranaea: Salticidae). https://apps.lucidcentral.org/salticidae/

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: Jun 20, 2019 Views: 2139
Key Author(s): B.J. Richardson, R. Whyte and M. Żabka Key Publisher: lucidcentral.org Key Version: 1.0
Key to willow species and hybrids present in New Zealand

This key is illustrated with more than 2000 images of willow species and hybrids that are either wild or in cultivation in New Zealand, and the features that are used to identify them. Most illustrations are of willow clones grown in the national willow collection in Palmerston North maintained by Plant and Food NZ.

The key is designed for those with some experience in plant identification, and some features will need at least a strong hand lens (10x or better) to see features such as stamen filament hairs. It will be of use to bee-keepers, farmers with an interest in growing willows as bee food, and conservation estate managers who need to identify willows in the wild.

Writing of this key was funded by the Sustainable Farming Fund, Trees for Bees NZ, the Willow and Poplar Trust, Plant and Food NZ, and Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: May 27, 2019 Views: 2243
Key Author(s): Glenny D, Jones T Key Publisher: Landcare Research Key Version: 2019
Invasive aquatic plants in Europe

Introduction

This key is an identification tool for invasive aquatic plants and the close allies ('look-alikes'). Part of the species is traded as ornamental plants for ponds and aquaria. As such they may escape cultivation and start colonizing natural environments and become a pest.

A total of 78 species is included. All features are illustrated with botanical drawings so that no knowledge of botanical terms is needed, basic knowledge of plant morphology, however, is helpful. Distinguishing characters have been added for certain groups of closely related species. The keys link to complete species descriptions on the Q-bank – Plants website. All species are well illustrated by photographs showing distinguishing characteristics or invaded sites. The key is regularly updated with new species and new photographs. This key is also available in French and Dutch.

 

EPPO-Q-bank

EPPO-Q-bank – Comprehensive databases on plant pests and diseases covers the following organism groups that contain quarantine organisms:

  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
  • Invasive Plants
  • Nematodes
  • Arthropods
  • Phytoplasma’s
  • Viruses and viroids

The databases are managed by EPPO – the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization and curated by internationally known specialists and contain specimen-based information including molecular data. The website offers the possibility to blast, in single- or multi-locus mode, sequences for identification.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: May 22, 2019 Views: 2264
Key Author(s): R. Pot, J.L.C.H. van Valkenburg, H. Duistermaat, E. Boer Key Version: June 2017
Pennisetum key

Introduction

This key is specifically developed for the identification of species belonging to the genus Pennisetum available on the European market. The reason for developing this key is the large number of Pennisetum species and varieties available and the difficulty of distinguishing them from each other. Since August 2017 one Pennisetum species, Pennisetum setaceum, is on the List of Invasive Alien Species of Union concern (the Union list), which forms the core of Regulation (EU) 1143/2014. Pennisetum setaceum being on the Union list entails that sales, distribution and cultivation of this species is prohibited. Furthermore, this entails that the species shall not be brought into the territory of the European Union, and the species shall not be released into the environment (Regulation (EU) 1143/2014).

The key includes descriptions and photos of 10 Pennisetum species and 27 Pennisetum varieties. Seventeen features can be scored in random order to find the right species. The features are illustrated with line drawings to facilitate identification.

For each species two separate entries are included, one based on measurements of herbarium specimens and one based on GrassBase, the Online World Grass Flora. Two separate entries are included because sometimes there are discrepancies between the two sources, especially concerning quantitative traits. Entries based on our own herbarium specimens better match plants in cultivation, while descriptions from GrassBase better correspond with plants in the wild.

To all entries of plant species and varieties two descriptions are attached. One is the Natural Language Description, which is an automatically generated description based on the feature scores that underlie the key. The second, entitled Extensive Description, is a manually created description, which gives more precise plant features and includes some additional information.

All entries are illustrated with photos, which is recommended to use as a final control step of the identification process. For most species also microscopic photos are included, detailing floral characteristics.

EPPO-Q-bank

EPPO-Q-bank – Comprehensive databases on plant pests and diseases covers the following organism groups that contain quarantine organisms:

  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
  • Invasive Plants
  • Nematodes
  • Arthropods
  • Phytoplasma’s
  • Viruses and viroids

The databases are managed by EPPO – the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization and curated by internationally known specialists and contain specimen-based information including molecular data. The website offers the possibility to blast, in single- or multi-locus mode, sequences for identification.

Reference

European Union. (2014). Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species. Official Journal of the European Union, 57, 35.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: May 22, 2019 Views: 2238
Key Author(s): M.E. Costerus Key Version: May 2018
Seedlings of invasive plants

Introduction

This key helps to identify seedlings of invasive plants, so plants can be recognized in an early stage of development. The species included are those of invasive terrestrial plants and/or plants which are introduced as weeds in imported potplants.

A total of 92 species is included. All features are illustrated with botanical drawings so that no knowledge of botanical terms is needed, basic knowledge of plant morphology, however, is helpful. The keys link to complete species descriptions on the Q-bank – Plants website. All species are well illustrated by photographs showing distinguishing characteristics or invaded sites. Several species are also treated in the Key to the invasive terrestrial plants and/or the Key to the Weeds in bonsai plants. This key is also available in French and Dutch.

EPPO-Q-bank

EPPO-Q-bank covers the following organism groups that contain quarantine organisms:

  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
  • Invasive Plants
  • Nematodes
  • Arthropods
  • Phytoplasma’s
  • Viruses and viroids

The databases are managed by EPPO – the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization and curated by internationally known specialists and contain specimen-based information including molecular data. The website offers the possibility to blast, in single- or multi-locus mode, sequences for identification.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: May 22, 2019 Views: 23443
Key Author(s): C. Tomas & H. Duistermaat, Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands Key Publisher: Lucidcentral.org Key Version: September 2017
Seeds of invasive plants

Introduction

This key is an identification tool for seeds of invasive plants. The choice of species was based on an extensive survey of seeds and seed mixtures in trade, where the seeds of these invasive species were found as contamination.

A total of 143 species is included. All features are illustrated with botanical drawings so that no knowledge of botanical terms is needed, basic knowledge of plant morphology, however, is helpful. The keys link to complete species descriptions on the Q-bank – Plants website. All species are well illustrated by photographs showing distinguishing characteristics or invaded sites. This key is also available in French and Dutch.

EPPO-Q-bank

EPPO-Q-bank covers the following organism groups that contain quarantine organisms:

  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
  • Invasive Plants
  • Nematodes
  • Arthropods
  • Phytoplasma’s
  • Viruses and viroids

The databases are managed by EPPO – the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization and curated by internationally known specialists and contain specimen-based information including molecular data. The website offers the possibility to blast, in single- or multi-locus mode, sequences for identification.

Posted By: Site Admin Last Updated: May 22, 2019 Views: 24284
Key Author(s): Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity Naturalis (section NHN), Leiden & the Plant Protection Service, Wageningen Key Publisher: Lucidcentral.org Key Version: September 2017
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