Click on images to enlarge
infestation (Photo: Land Protection, QDNRW)
spiny stems, leaves, flowers and immature fruit (Photo: Land Protection, QDNRW)
flowers of parrot's beak (Gmelina philippensis), borne in an elongated cluster (Photo: Sheldon Navie)
the hairless leaf undersides of parrot's beak, Gmelina philippensis (Photo: Sheldon Navie)
Gmelina elliptica Sm.
Gmelina asiatica L. (misapplied)Gmelina asiatica L. var. villosa (Roxb.) Bakh.Gmelina villosa Roxb.
Verbenaceae (Northern Territory)Lamiaceae (New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia)
Asiatic beechberry, badhara bush, common bulang, oval-leafed gmelina, parrot's beak
Native to south-eastern Asia (i.e. Cambodia, northern Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines) and some islands in the Indian (i.e. Mauritius, Andaman and Nicobar) and Pacific (i.e. Palau and Kiribati) Oceans.
This species is locally naturalised in central Queensland. It has also become naturalised overseas in Jamaica and Zaire.
Badhara bush (Gmelina elliptica) forms dense impenetrable thickets and it is regarded as an environmental weed in Queensland. This thorny shrub has significant impacts on natural areas, decreasing biodiversity and causing lasting environmental effects. It spreads mainly by bird-dispersed seeds, and was possibly deliberately introduced as a garden ornamental.
The only known infestations of Badhara bush (Gmelina elliptica) in Australia occur near Rockhampton (e.g. at Stanage Bay) and this species is currently the target of an extensive eradication program. However, it is a potential weed of wetter habitats throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of Australia, and is thought to pose a serious threat to rangeland biodiversity in northern Australia.
Fact sheets are available from Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation (DEEDI) service centres and our Customer Service Centre (telephone 13 25 23). Check our website at www.biosecurity.qld.gov.au to ensure you have the latest version of this fact sheet. The control methods referred to in this fact sheet should be used in accordance with the restrictions (federal and state legislation, and local government laws) directly or indirectly related to each control method. These restrictions may prevent the use of one or more of the methods referred to, depending on individual circumstances. While every care is taken to ensure the accuracy of this information, DEEDI does not invite reliance upon it, nor accept responsibility for any loss or damage caused by actions based on it.
Copyright © 2016. All rights reserved. Identic Pty Ltd. Special edition of Environmental Weeds of Australia for Biosecurity Queensland.
The mobile application of Environmental Weeds of Australia is available from the Google Play Store and Apple iTunes.